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  • 27 août 2018 - 08:10
  • Claire Bernole, Réforme 8013 signes
Culture

Un nouvel élan pour la musique chrétienne

Hillsong en concert https://flic.kr/p/eFMaF1La chanson chrétienne renvoie souvent un écho ringard autour d’elle. Mais sa diversité, sa qualité et le nombre de ses artistes n’ont pourtant cessé d’évoluer ces dernières décennies.

Photo: Hillsong en concert à Londres CC (by-nc-nd) Steven McAllister

Par Claire Bernole, Réforme

Parler de chanson chrétienne, c’est déjà susciter des sourires en coin. Les termes mêmes évoquent davantage l’image du prêtre de «La vie est un long fleuve tranquille» qu’un genre à prendre au sérieux. Ce qui ne rend pas justice à la diversité de cette musique. En outre, si on entend par «chanson chrétienne» une production exclusivement proposée par des artistes qui déclarent leur foi, c’est forcément réducteur. Des Francis Cabrel et des Laurent Voulzy n’ont-ils pas écrit et interprété des textes explicitement chrétiens? D’autres encore chantent des paroles qu’un chrétien ne renierait pas, sans pour autant s’afficher comme tels.

Le rock sanctifié

Parmi les groupes et les chanteurs qui endossent sans complexe l’étiquette chrétienne, la diversité des styles est grande. On ne s’étonnera pas de retrouver dans cette bulle du rap, du rock, de la pop… Une sorte de clonage de la musique dite séculière.

Ne relever que ce manque d’originalité, c’est oublier le chemin parcouru depuis les années 1970. À cette époque, le rock est anathème et ce jusqu’au retournement des années 1990. «Plutôt que de lutter contre ce style musical, l’idée a été de l’utiliser pour la gloire de Dieu, de le sanctifier en quelque sorte», explique Gaël Cosendai, pasteur et compositeur.

Dans les années 2000, le phénomène Hillsong, venu d’Australie, provoque une explosion du genre et exercera une influence durable, y compris en Europe. Bien sûr, ces évolutions se sont appuyées sur la technologie: enfin avec un bon ordinateur et un bon micro, sans forcément louer de studio, les artistes pouvaient produire une création de qualité.

Les veines évangélique, réformée et catholique commencent à développer leurs spécificités et conquièrent un public qui n’a plus honte de partager ce qu’il écoute avec des amis hors de l’Église. Pour résumer, la tendance évangélique a privilégié la louange, faisant appel à tous les instruments du rock. L’Église réformée trouve, quant à elle, d’autres marques, contrainte et forcée: «Les temples ont une mauvaise acoustique, le rock ne passe pas. Les églises évangéliques, avec leurs locaux modernes, n’ont pas ce souci-là», remarque Éric Galia, pasteur de l’Eglise protestante unie de France. Cet amateur de musique, musicien lui-même, pointe un paradoxe: «Notre Église a une théologie assez progressiste mais la musique, et pas seulement elle, est vieillotte. Pour les évangéliques, c’est l’inverse: ils utilisent des formes d’expression actuelles mais leur théologie est plus conservatrice.»

Avec Joël Dahan, un autre pasteur qui a donné une large place à la musique dans son ministère, Éric Galia aimerait voir éclore un langage qui ne serait pas que celui de la louange, suggérant une relation verticale à Dieu, mais qui engloberait les relations avec les autres ainsi qu’une diversité de questionnements. «Les groupes qui ont du succès aujourd’hui n’interviennent que sur la dimension verticale, il n’y a pas de dimension interprétative du texte biblique et du monde. Cependant, en faisant le pari d’une musique populaire, ils atteingnent les gens là où ils sont. Luther a fait pareil», nuance Joël Dahan.

Cette situation est certainement le résultat de l’histoire même de la musique chrétienne. Dans les années 1970-1980, son cours aura été infléchi par les aspirations nouvelles de la jeune génération «qui voulait s’adresser autrement à Dieu que par des chants doctrinaux», rappelle Sylvain Freymond, missionnaire et partie prenante du mouvement Jeunesse en Mission (JEM). Un grand nombre de jeunes ont adhéré au concept américain des Jesus people, qui proposaient beaucoup de concerts.

L’élan qui a parcouru l’Europe est bien né outre-Atlantique. Des chants de louange simples, associés à de la scène, ont été importés dans les communautés et ont donné jour à une musique moderne, qui s’est progressivement sophistiquée. «Après une dizaine d’années de résistance, les Églises évangéliques et réformées ont accepté d’avoir d’autres instruments que l’orgue ou l’harmonium», raconte Sylvain Freymond. Puis est venu le gospel, qu’on a mâtiné de rap, jazz, pop. Et devant le succès de tubes tels que Happy Day, remontant déjà aux années 1960, les Églises ont voulu reproduire ce genre de musique afin d’attirer de nouveaux fidèles.

Affaire de promotion

Finalement, le chant chrétien a pris une variété de formes audibles à la radio comme à la télé. Le mouvement JEM a su répondre aux attentes de la jeunesse en revisitant et en composant de très nombreux chants. On pourrait considérer que ce renouveau n’est qu’un symptôme, celui d’un bouleversement bien plus profond qui traverse les Églises. «Jusque-là, la partie importante du culte était la prédication, qui pouvait durer une heure. Mais une véritable réflexion autour de la louange a vu le jour. Désormais, ce n’est plus seulement un pasteur qui choisit quelques chants de son côté», explique Gaël Cosendai.

Des têtes d’affiche – surtout catholiques et évangéliques – ont commencé à émerger de ce foisonnement. Par facilité, le public se montre donc moins curieux, moins enclin à prendre le risque de la découverte, comme le déplore Pascal Portoukalian, directeur du principal distributeur de musique chrétienne en pays francophones, Paul & Séphora. «On pense qu’avec internet, la musique se diffuse facilement. Ce n’est pas faux mais il ne suffit pas d’en faire, encore faut-il la faire connaître», précise cet homme d’expérience.

Ce travail de promotion coûte du temps et de l’argent. Or, trop souvent, les artistes ont l’impression qu’ils peuvent s’en passer. Résultat: la diversité est là, mais cachée sous le boisseau. Si le désir d’évangélisation, qu’il émane des artistes eux-mêmes ou de leurs fans, contribue à la faire connaître, il ne suffit pas pour autant. Même si en France, contrairement aux États-Unis, le poids économique de ce secteur est faible, la pratique, elle, reste dynamique. Elle se manifeste à travers un intérêt pour les concerts qui ne se dément pas.

Direction le Hellfest

À sa façon, le monde à part du metal chrétien ou white metal, en opposition au black metal, réunit ces différentes dimensions: des concerts, l’évangélisation et une place, petite mais acquise, sur le marché. Il a l’ambition de porter des valeurs positives et constructives, qui contrebalancent le sexe et la drogue fréquemment mis en avant par leurs homologues du versant noir. Ils ont cependant en commun d’aborder des questions existentielles: la mort, l’amour, la haine, la révolte… sur lesquelles les chrétiens ont à dire.

Certains de ces groupes (ou musiciens chrétiens dans des groupes qui ne le sont pas) se produisent au Hellfest, un festival de metal à renommée internationale qui se tient chaque année en France. La présence chrétienne dans le rock remonte aux années 1960 et, si elle est de faible ampleur, elle dure. Au Hellfest, elle est associée, de manière assez inattendue à des actions de témoignage, menées notamment par quelques dizaines de protestants de la région de Nantes. Aussi, depuis deux ans, un groupe d’amateurs de metal fait même le déplacement pour distribuer, après avoir suscité la discussion avec des festivaliers, une édition spéciale de la Bible (la Metal Bible) comprenant le témoignage de musiciens célèbres du monde du metal convertis au christianisme.

Qui a dit que rock et foi étaient incompatibles? Probablement l’industrie de la musique… «Quelque 300 groupes dans le monde utilisent le nom de Satan pour leur groupe, ce qui montre bien la portée commerciale de ce choix», affirme Jonathan Hanley, amateur de metal et journaliste qui assiste depuis dix ans au Hellfest. La christianophobie dont on taxe les métaleux n’est la grande majorité du temps, à ses yeux, qu’une façon pour eux de revendiquer leur désaccord avec l’ordre établi. La musique peut mener à tout, l’évangélisation aussi.

 

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