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  • 07 juin 2018 - 08:10
  • laurence villoz 4200 signes
Société

L’ex-djihadiste David Vallat raconte sa déradicalisation

David VallatDe l’engagement terroriste à la prise de conscience, le français David Vallat retrace les mécanismes de la radicalisation et les moyens d’en sortir. Témoignage de l’ex-djihadiste, invité par le Réseau laïque romand.

Photo: David Vallat

Par Laurence Villoz

«En prison, je me suis jeté à corps perdu dans la lecture. Je me suis ouvert au monde et j’ai remis en marche ma capacité à penser», se souvient David Vallat. Ex-djihadiste condamné en 1995 pour «association de malfaiteurs en relation avec une entreprise terroriste», ce Français de 47 ans raconte son engagement pour le djihad et sa déradicalisation. Il était l’invité du Réseau laïque romand, samedi 26 mai, à Genève.

Alors qu’il est adolescent, David Vallat visionne le film «Nuit et brouillard». Devant ses yeux défilent les images de la déportation des juifs pendant la Seconde Guerre mondiale. Le documentaire provoque un déclic. «J’ai voulu aller réparer les injustices.» En 1993, à 22 ans, ce musulman décide de rejoindre les unités combattantes bosniaques. «Ce que je découvre sur le terrain va bien au-delà de ce que j’avais imaginé. Je sais alors que si je n’ai pas d’idéologie, je vais flancher.» À cette époque, David Vallat n’est qu’un «simple» croyant. Le concept de martyr mis en avant par ses frères d’armes, il l’adopte. «Désormais, je n’avais plus peur, car je savais que j’irais au paradis.»

En 1994, il part pendant neuf mois dans un camp d’Al-Qaïda en Afghanistan. «J’y ai reçu une formation complète autant technique, que politique et religieuse. On m’a appris à penser et à agir. Je savais fabriquer une ceinture d’explosifs. J’étais convaincu que ceux qui ne pensaient pas comme moi étaient des “charbons de l’enfer”». Mais tout s’arrête en 1995. David Vallat est arrêté. Son processus de déradicalisation commence. Premier islamiste français en détention, il parle de ses années d’emprisonnement comme d’un temps de profonde réflexion qui lui a permis de déconstruire les idées qu’on lui avait inculquées.

Prise de conscience

«Premièrement, les policiers qui m’ont arrêté m’ont traité humainement, alors que mes acolytes m’avaient dit que je serais torturé.» Derrière les barreaux, David Vallat se plonge dans la lecture. Il étudie la philosophie, l’histoire, les sciences et obtient un certificat en administration commerciale et comptabilité. Mais ce sont surtout les rencontres qu’il fait en prison qui lui permettent de remettre en question l’idéologie islamiste. «Je me suis réaccaparé une humanité dont je m’étais défait.»

David Vallat passera quatre ans en prison. Son retour à la vie civile en 1999 est difficile. Il ressent un manque face à l’exaltation provoquée par l’engagement pour le djihad. La rencontre avec sa future femme lui permet de renouer avec le quotidien. «C’est la naissance de ma fille qui a scellé mon retour à la vie. Je peux à nouveau me projeter dans l’avenir.»

Après les massacres de Charlie Hebdo en 2015, il s’engage pour dénoncer le terrorisme et les méthodes de radicalisation, en publiant notamment «Terreur de jeunesse», un livre dans lequel il raconte sa descente dans l’enfer du terrorisme puis sa prise de conscience. Début 2018, il fonde avec la sociologue Amélie Myriam Chelly le Centre d’analyse des islamismes et des radicalismes, une structure qui vise à former le personnel pénitentiaire, réinvestir la prévention dans les milieux scolaires et repérer les signes de radicalisation. «Il ne faut jamais abandonner l’idée qu’on va pouvoir récupérer les personnes radicalisées, même si ce n’est pas toutes.»

Aujourd’hui, il propose des instruments concrets pour prévenir et lutter contre la radicalisation. «Surtout ne pas réunir les terroristes au même endroit en prison, car ils créeront les futurs réseaux». Il insiste également sur le fait de construire un contre-discours à l’idéologie islamiste. «L’individu devient dangereux dès qu’il ne se pose plus de question. Il faut pousser les jeunes à réfléchir, rien que de produire un doute raisonnable est un premier pas.» Parallèlement, David Vallat demande la mise à l’index de toute une littérature, notamment de l’ouvrage «La voie du musulman» validé par l’Université al-Azhar et disponible en librairie. «Nous devons appliquer les lois de la République, la mise au ban de ce genre de textes serait un signe fort.»

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