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  • 07 février 2018 - 09:30
  • Joël Burri 2670 signes
Théologie

La Réforme aussi a ses «fake news»

Le château d'Yverdon CC(by) Mark Goebel via https://flic.kr/p/5U4A1hLes fausses idées sur la Réforme sont nombreuses: jeudi soir au château d’Yverdon-les-Bains, l’historien Michel Grandjean mettra le doigt sur certaines d’entre elles. En marge de cette conférence, une exposition de livres anciens, une présentation de costumes et même une dégustation de spécialité de la région de Luther

Photo: Le château d'Yverdon CC(by) Mark Goebel

Par Joël Burri 

«Le concept de Réforme est l’un des concepts les plus éculés au XVIe siècle. Tout le monde parle de réformer l’Église. Déjà un siècle avant Luther, Jan Hus revendique des réformes, mais le concile qui l’a condamné voulait aussi réformer», explique Michel Grandjean, professeur d’histoire à l’Université de Genève. «Victor Hugo disait que rien n’est plus puissant qu’une idée dont l’heure est venue. Jan Hus avait beau être un bon prédicateur, quand il prêchait, même devant 1000 personnes, après une heure on se souvenait qu’il était convaincant, mais après deux mois que restait-il de ses arguments? Un siècle après, Luther a pu profiter de l’imprimerie. Ses écrits étaient diffusés en milliers d’exemplaires, si bien qu’au moment de la Diète de Worms, on peut imaginer que tout le monde en Allemagne avait entendu parler de lui.»

Ainsi l’idée que l’on se fait du théologien solitaire développant ses thèses est à mettre en doute. D’ailleurs, les a-t-il seulement affichées, ses 95 thèses le 31 octobre 1517? «On n’en sait rien», interroge Michel Grandjean. «La première mention publique d’un affichage des thèses par Luther remonte à 1546, soit près de 30 ans plus tard, quand Mélanchthon écrit la vie de Luther… qui vient de mourir.» C’est d’ailleurs l’une des fausses idées sur la Réforme que l’historien démontera jeudi soir au château d’Yverdon. Alors faut-il garder cette date comme moment de la naissance de la Réforme? «D’autres dates de naissance seraient aussi possibles, et d’ailleurs beaucoup plus fortes symboliquement. Comme le 10 décembre 1520 (quand Luther brûle la bulle qui le menace d’excommunication), ou le 18 avril 1521 (quand, à la diète de Worms, il tient tête à l’empereur et aux théologiens romains).»

Alors, peut-on au moins dire que la doctrine du «sola Scriptura» (l’Écriture comme seul critère de foi) met en place un critère de vérité simple et compréhensible par tous? «Non, la dispute de Luther contre Zwingli à Marbourg en 1529 montre que les réformateurs eux-mêmes ne sont pas parvenus à se mettre d’accord autour de la question de l’interprétation de la Bible», rétorque Michel Grandjean qui évoquera aussi cette question durant sa conférence.

Outre la conférence du professeur Grandjean, le Château d’Yverdon accueillera ce jeudi 8 février, deux expositions éphémères. L’une d’ouvrages religieux anciens présentés par la Bibliothèque d’Yverdon et l’autre des costumes de l’opéra «Les puritains» de Bellini. Ce spectacle avait été présenté en 2011 à Genève. Les costumes créés pour l’époque donnent l’occasion de se plonger dans le puritanisme britannique du XVIIe siècle. Enfin, un encas de boulettes de pommes de terre (Thüringer Klösse) et de bière permettra aux participants de découvrir la gastronomie de Thuringe, la région qui a vu grandir Luther.

 

Rendez-vous 

Luther, Viret, Calvin: les idées fausses sur la Réforme
Conférence de Michel Grandjean, professeur d’histoire du christianisme à l’Université de Genève dans le cadre des Conférences du Château.

Jeudi 8 février 20h, Aula Magna du château d’Yverdon 

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