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  • 10 octobre 2017 - 08:15
  • laurence villoz 4318 signes
Société

«La religion comporte un aspect affectif, facteur de transmission»

Meret VallonLa question de l’accueil des enfants et du catéchisme se trouve au centre des préoccupations de plusieurs Eglises romandes. Qu’apporte la transmission d’une religion au développement d’un enfant? Rencontre avec la pédopsychiatre Meret Vallon.

Photo: Meret Vallon

Par Laurence Villoz

La chapelle de Servion (VD) a récemment été transformée en espace pour les plus jeunes. L’Eglise protestante de Genève promeut de nouvelles formes de catéchèses inspirées par «Godly play» ou «jeu divin», une marque américaine qui développe des outils inspirés par la pédagogie Montessori. Quant aux Eglises de Berne-Jura-Soleure, elles ont tenu à rappeler publiquement que le catéchisme n’était pas de l’endoctrinement, mais un espace de réflexion. Protestinfo a rencontré Meret Vallon, psychiatre pour enfants et adolescents qui a elle-même donné le culte de l’enfance à Molondin dans le canton de Vaud.

Transmettre une religion à un enfant, est-ce bénéfique pour son développement?

Une religion est un ensemble de croyances et de règles qui structure la vie quotidienne des gens. Elle a de l’importance dans le développement de l’enfant, car elle facilite l’intégration à un groupe qui partage les mêmes valeurs. Par exemple, dans le christianisme, les histoires bibliques s’inscrivent dans une culture commune. Les différentes fêtes religieuses apportent également un cadre temporel à l’enfant.  Les valeurs partagées, la question de la transmission par rapport à des ancêtres communs, l’inscription de rituels dans une temporalité sont autant de structures nécessaires au développement de l’enfant.

Est-ce essentiel que ces valeurs soient religieuses?

Pas nécessairement. Toutefois, la religion comporte un aspect affectif important et des études ont montré que l'émotion était facteur d'une meilleure transmission. Par exemple, l’Ancien Testament raconte des histoires de vie remplies de joie, de tristesse, de frustration ou encore de colère. Elles constituent des références pour l’enfant qui peut les comparer à ce qu’il vit lui-même. De même, il peut partager des émotions avec ses proches lors des fêtes religieuses.

On parle toujours de transmission adulte-enfant, mais les enfants ne transmettent-ils pas eux aussi la foi ou du religieux aux adultes?

Les relations sont toujours des échanges. Un enfant à qui on ne parle pas devient fou. Il est crucial pour lui de développer des liens. Le cadre doit être porté par l’adulte, mais à travers les activités, on se réjouit, on rigole, on est déçu ensemble. L’adulte est le garant du cadre sécurisant. Or l’enfant va poser des questions et réagir émotionnellement. Il est interpellé et interpelle en retour. Par contre, s’agissant de la foi, à mon avis, elle émerge de manière individuelle quand on grandit.

Est-ce que cela peut nuire au développement de l’enfant si on ne lui transmet aucune valeur religieuse?

Ce qui est certain, c’est qu’il passe à côté d’un bagage culturel important qui devrait faire partie de son éducation. Ce bagage, au-delà du christianisme et quelque soit la religion, est indispensable. S’il ne le reçoit pas en suffisance, il peut souffrir d’insécurité par rapport à des questions existentielles.

Actuellement, de moins en moins de parents vont inscrire leur enfant au culte de l’enfance où au catéchisme.

Le catéchisme peut être vécu aujourd’hui comme une contrainte, mais cela ne devrait pas l’être. La société considère majoritairement la religion comme astreignante alors qu’elle devrait être perçue comme une source de joie. Dans l’éducation, il est important de permettre à l’enfant de développer un sens critique et la capacité de choisir. Parfois la religion est un prétexte, ou utilisée comme support, pour inculquer des règles contraignantes ou limitatives dans la capacité d’agir et de réfléchir.

Quelles sont les conséquences de transmettre une vérité figée à l’enfant, comme le font certaines sectes ou mouvements religieux particulièrement rigides?

Priver un enfant d’acquérir la capacité de discernement, de l’aliéner en quelque sorte, relève de la maltraitance. Mais tout est une question de mesure. Je connais des personnes qui ont grandi dans des communautés religieuses particulièrement contraignantes et qui en même temps avaient suffisamment de marge de manœuvre pour développer un esprit critique. Ce n’est pas tant la communauté qui est néfaste que l’utilisation pathologique du religieux dans des rapports familiaux dysfonctionnels.

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